Callbacks, Promises, Generators and Why a JS Developer needs to understand them.

I've had my fair share of up and downs with Javascript and it always is
frustrating when the language you've been using for a while doesn't behave the
way you assumed it would but I continued using JS for almost everything I built
over the past 2-3 years.

Why Javascript?

I'm not biased towards the language, I would like to get back to being a C
developer or maybe be a little modern and be a Go/Rust Developer but as I
mentioned in my previous post, I've been a little bitch about it and keep
running back to JS for moral support.

But, I still think that learning JS is a valuable skill. Learning any
programming language at this point is.

We though are going to go with JS to start because I can explain stuff about it
a little more than I can explain C, Go, or Rust.

It all Started with him... the dreaded one


Veterans love them, newbies fear them and others have no idea what's going on.

The thing about callbacks is that we are all using them in almost every JS
codebase and still fail to realize that we are.

Anyway, getting to the basics.

What are they?

It's a function. A function trapped inside another one to be precise but it's
still a function so let's treat them like one.

function functionOne(callbackFunction) {
  const a = 1;

function functionTwo(num) {

// Variation One
functionOne((value) => {

// Variation Two

Now, before I explain the above, I'm assuming you understand that functions in
JS aren't considered different than general parameters and thus, you can pass
them down to other functions.

This is also allowed in other languages as well so should not come as a surprise
anymore to people who've been jumping languages or to people who've been dealing
with JS a lot.

Let's go through the code snippet now.

We've got 2 functions to start with functionOne and functionTwo,
functionOne takes in a parameter called callbackFunction which could be
anything, a string a number or even a boolean or an object/array for
that matter, but I'm going to keep it simple for us to understand and not add
type checks at this point (which you should add if you are writing in just JS,
ignore if you use TypeScript).

functionTwo on the other hand has the same parameter signature or accepts the
same number of arguments as functionOne.

If we now look at the inner code of these two we see that one declares a
variable a and executed callbackFunction and passed in that value (again,
functionOne assumes that callbackFunction is going to come in as a function
and so blindly executes it.

functionTwo's inner code is logging the passed parameter to the
console/stdout(depending on where you are executing this snippet).


After the declarations we have 2 variations for the execution of our functions,
one being a little verbose and the 2nd being my definition of readable code.

  1. The first variation basically calls functionOne and passes it another
    function as a parameter which is called an anonymous function (guess why)
    and this anonymous function surprisingly has a value parameter, we didn't
    declare it, so how does it get it? functionOne passes it to anonymous
    function when we made the callbackFunction(a) and callbackFunction is now
    pointing to our anonymous function because this is what we passed as a
    parameter and then we just call our functionTwo and pass it the received

  2. The second variation is used when there's only one function that needs to be
    executed with the incoming value from functionOne, you should still go with
    Variation one if you're going to use the value more than once. Now this works
    because we are still passing functionOne a callbackFunction which takes
    in one value and similar to the 1st variation, it accepts the value and runs
    its logic with it.

You can copy the above code and run it on any JS playground and you should see
that the number 1 is printed twice.

Why use Callbacks?

As I said, you're using them everywhere in JS without realizing that you are
but, as to why use them? It's a very simple answer.

Scoped Data Access

If you've not gone through the internals of JS this might be a little hard for
me to explain but I'll give it a try.

Like most languages, you have data scopes that are maintained by the interpreter
or compiler which is why you can access variables only under certain conditions.

If you go back to the above example, you can see that var a = 1 is defined
inside functionOne and thus can only be used by functionOne's scope or by
code that is inside functionOne but what do you do if you want that data to be
accessible to other functions because if you write everything inside one
function, then it beats the point of having functions and or thinking about
creating modules altogether.

This is where callbacks excel and this is why JS is very async friendly.

async - asynchronous programming, I'll explain this in detail in another post.

When you write code with async programming in mind, the chances of you blocking
the execution thread is very low, unless you hit a deadlock between two
callbacks calling each other or you forgot to break a loop.

So if we go back to our example, we see that a is passed to functionTwo from
functionOne's scope and then functionTwo just prints its. That is a very
naive example and in real-life code, callbacks aren't that clean and easy to

If dealing with dependant data and working with data from the network, you'll
probably see your code go south like this.

function dataFetch() {
  const data = someNetworkRequest();
  formatFetchedData(data, (err, formattedData) => {
    if (err) {
      return err;

    processFormattedData(formattedData, (err, processingResult) => {
      if (err) {
        return err;

      sendResultBackToServer(processingResult, (_err_, serverResult) => {
        // let's end this with a console.log

function formatFetchedData(param, callback) {
  // relevant code

function processFormattedData(param, callback) {
  // relevant code

function sendResultBackToServer(param, callback) {
  // relevant code


A 3 level callback dependency can be readable but obviously, a complex app won't
stop at 3 and while I could write something cleaner with an async chaining
utility, a very famous one is async.js and we could use it's waterfall
method to keep passing down upper dependencies to the lower functions, it's a
little more manageable but still messy in larger codebase.

The Solution to the Living Hell

Enter Promises

The above-mentioned chaining is still the solution to avoiding the triangular
callback code but with a little more magic handled by the wrappers.

You see, someone wrote a library called q which was the initial concept of how
promises have grown to be today, this was followed by bluebird's promise
polyfills which overall implement the same thenable paper.


We are still going to have the callbacks in our life but we are going to put on
a little makeup on them so we can bear them for longer sessions.

Thenables when explained simply, is a stateful container that can be chained by
.then caller functions and each caller function creates another thenable. A
recursive chain of wrappers to be precise.

I'll explain with the same example

// Variation One
  .then((data) => {
    return formatFetchedData(data);
  .then((formattedData) => {
    return processFormattedData(formattedData);
  .then((processingResult) => {
    return sendResultBackToServer(processingResult);
  .then((serverResult) => {
    return console.log(serverResult);

// Variation two
  .then((data) => formatFetchedData(data))
  .then((formattedData) => processFormattedData(formattedData))
  .then((processingResult) => sendResultBackToServer(processingResult))
  .then((serverResult) => console.log(serverResult));

// Variation Three

If you understand the verbose example, you can understand how the other 2
variations work and this is obviously much neater than plain callbacks but as I
said, we are still going to continue using callbacks because the language
depends on it. The solution/promises are just a better way to handle it.

As visible, we still pass functions down to a wrapper/caller function that takes
in the returned data and passed it to the next then in the chain because every
function being called inside a .then is treated as another Promise and hence
can be chained to be such.

I'll try to simplify how Promises work internally. The Promise constructor
maintains a state for itself. pending | fulfilled | rejected these 3 per
promise decide if the call was successful, or failed and based on it, they call
a .then or a .catch.

new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  if (1 > 0) return resolve(true);
  else return reject(false);
  .then((value) => {
  .catch((err) => {

To explain this we'll consider the above example. I create a new Promise using
the words new Promise and this constructor takes in a callback that is passed
2 params, resolve, and reject.


At this point we have a Promise with the state pending because nothing has
actually been a success or a failure and it'll stay that way till you, the
person who's writing this promise decides.

resolve tells the constructor that the run was successful and you can execute
your .then function's callback and pass it the data that it has received. In
our case, true is passed to .then.

reject, on the other hand, calls the .catch with the passed value and this
is where the state changes to rejected

You didn't mention the state changing to fulfilled !!

I know. Patience, human.

The fulfilled state is updated but under certain conditions, if there was only
one .then call, then the main constructor is now fulfilled but if you
chained it with more and more .thens then each one has it's own state and even
though the first constructor might have resolved and changed to fulfilled
you'll still see pending in the console because the chained ones each have their
Promise instance which still has the state as pending.

In the end, we have a few callbacks and a constructor wrapped around our
callbacks to make this chaining possible and code a lot more readable.


This is a huge topic so I'm going to explain it in another post sometime in the
future but for now all you need to know is that generators are special kinds of
functions that allow you to iterate over and over till you decide to end the
function altogether. This is the actual concept that async and await works on.
You can write your custom async-await implementation using a few generators and

The Chosen One


Now even though I'm someone who likes promises more than I like async-await,
mainly because I keep forgetting to add the async keyword on my functions and
I'm too used to writing thenables to control my async flow, still as a
programmer we gotta learn what's new. Isn't always better but if you know your
options you can choose the ones that suit the condition.

As mentioned in Generators, you can create your a custom async-await wrapper if
you'd like too since the interpreters will actually compile your async-await
code into generators anyway.

Generators allow you to iterate over itself and used a keyword called yield
which allows you to throw value out of the generator and take in another value
for the next yield till you decide to end it's life with a return, much like
normal functions.

function* infinite() {
  let index = 0;

  while (true) yield index++;

const generator = infinite(); // "Generator { }"

console.log(; // 0
console.log(; // 1
console.log(; // 2

With this in place, I can have one generator run, get an async value and yield
it out of it, then pass it back to the generator and it can run the next yield
scope and so on till it decides to stop. You need to understand that while
yielding we are still resolving promises and async/await is nothing more than
syntactic sugar for creating and resolving promises and as always, it's also
based on the concept of callbacks and hence each of them creates a slight delay
if compared to async functions written with just callbacks. But, developer
experience and sanity need to be kept in check, else we'll have all JS
developers in some Asylum yapping about callbacks all day long.

In technical terms, Javascript's concept of considering functions as first-class
types improves the composition and this is something that functional programming
languages generally have.

The composition works well but then you gotta limit the level of abstraction you
create ( a rant for later )

Overall, a general idea of how the internals of the language dictate your
control flow helps you make better choices and this can be seen by the concept
of callbacks which is a spec that
André Staltz came up with, which is creating
a Pub/Sub model using just callbacks and using them for streams (Again, will
make a post about this as well).

Make sure you don't create a callback hell inside a thenable though.

That was long....